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Python在Windows的命令行中输出彩色文字的技巧

有时候我们想要用不同色彩的文字来区分下,但是在Windows上不同于Mac或Linux,无法使用\033的方法,那怎么办呢?这里我们将对Windows下命令行输出彩色文字进行分析。

首先我们来看一段代码,品味下是怎么生成彩色的:

std_out_handle = ctypes.windll.kernel32.GetStdHandle(STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE)

def set_cmd_text_color(color, handle=std_out_handle):
    Bool = ctypes.windll.kernel32.SetConsoleTextAttribute(handle, color)
    return Bool

这一块是和Windows的编程特性有关,我们不深入进去,有兴趣自查资料。

我们已经看到,定义了一个『set_cmd_text_color』函数:

set_cmd_text_color(FOREGROUND_RED | FOREGROUND_GREEN | FOREGROUND_BLUE)

这个函数支持2位十六进制编码,比如0x12,0x03,0xef。取值都是0~f。区别在于,前一位指的是背景色,后一位指的是前景色,我们为了方便,可以给这些颜色编码定义一些有意义的别名。比如:

# Windows CMD命令行 字体颜色定义 text colors
FOREGROUND_BLACK = 0x00 # black.
FOREGROUND_DARKBLUE = 0x01 # dark blue.
FOREGROUND_DARKGREEN = 0x02 # dark green.
FOREGROUND_DARKSKYBLUE = 0x03 # dark skyblue.
FOREGROUND_DARKRED = 0x04 # dark red.
FOREGROUND_DARKPINK = 0x05 # dark pink.
FOREGROUND_DARKYELLOW = 0x06 # dark yellow.
FOREGROUND_DARKWHITE = 0x07 # dark white.
FOREGROUND_DARKGRAY = 0x08 # dark gray.
FOREGROUND_BLUE = 0x09 # blue.
FOREGROUND_GREEN = 0x0a # green.
FOREGROUND_SKYBLUE = 0x0b # skyblue.
FOREGROUND_RED = 0x0c # red.
FOREGROUND_PINK = 0x0d # pink.
FOREGROUND_YELLOW = 0x0e # yellow.
FOREGROUND_WHITE = 0x0f # white.

# Windows CMD命令行 背景颜色定义 background colors
BACKGROUND_BLUE = 0x10 # dark blue.
BACKGROUND_GREEN = 0x20 # dark green.
BACKGROUND_DARKSKYBLUE = 0x30 # dark skyblue.
BACKGROUND_DARKRED = 0x40 # dark red.
BACKGROUND_DARKPINK = 0x50 # dark pink.
BACKGROUND_DARKYELLOW = 0x60 # dark yellow.
BACKGROUND_DARKWHITE = 0x70 # dark white.
BACKGROUND_DARKGRAY = 0x80 # dark gray.
BACKGROUND_BLUE = 0x90 # blue.
BACKGROUND_GREEN = 0xa0 # green.
BACKGROUND_SKYBLUE = 0xb0 # skyblue.
BACKGROUND_RED = 0xc0 # red.
BACKGROUND_PINK = 0xd0 # pink.
BACKGROUND_YELLOW = 0xe0 # yellow.
BACKGROUND_WHITE = 0xf0 # white.

我们可以把每种颜色代码都封装成了易用的函数,可以根据需要在自己的脚本里直接导入相应函数进行彩色输出。

比如原来是 print ‘hello’   现在直接 printBlue(‘hello’) 就可以了。

#coding=utf-8

import ctypes
import sys

STD_INPUT_HANDLE = -10
STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE = -11
STD_ERROR_HANDLE = -12

# 字体颜色定义 ,关键在于颜色编码,由2位十六进制组成,分别取0~f,前一位指的是背景色,后一位指的是字体色
#由于该函数的限制,应该是只有这16种,可以前景色与背景色组合。也可以几种颜色通过或运算组合,组合后还是在这16种颜色中

# Windows CMD命令行 字体颜色定义 text colors
FOREGROUND_BLACK = 0x00 # black.
FOREGROUND_DARKBLUE = 0x01 # dark blue.
FOREGROUND_DARKGREEN = 0x02 # dark green.
FOREGROUND_DARKSKYBLUE = 0x03 # dark skyblue.
FOREGROUND_DARKRED = 0x04 # dark red.
FOREGROUND_DARKPINK = 0x05 # dark pink.
FOREGROUND_DARKYELLOW = 0x06 # dark yellow.
FOREGROUND_DARKWHITE = 0x07 # dark white.
FOREGROUND_DARKGRAY = 0x08 # dark gray.
FOREGROUND_BLUE = 0x09 # blue.
FOREGROUND_GREEN = 0x0a # green.
FOREGROUND_SKYBLUE = 0x0b # skyblue.
FOREGROUND_RED = 0x0c # red.
FOREGROUND_PINK = 0x0d # pink.
FOREGROUND_YELLOW = 0x0e # yellow.
FOREGROUND_WHITE = 0x0f # white.

# Windows CMD命令行 背景颜色定义 background colors
BACKGROUND_BLUE = 0x10 # dark blue.
BACKGROUND_GREEN = 0x20 # dark green.
BACKGROUND_DARKSKYBLUE = 0x30 # dark skyblue.
BACKGROUND_DARKRED = 0x40 # dark red.
BACKGROUND_DARKPINK = 0x50 # dark pink.
BACKGROUND_DARKYELLOW = 0x60 # dark yellow.
BACKGROUND_DARKWHITE = 0x70 # dark white.
BACKGROUND_DARKGRAY = 0x80 # dark gray.
BACKGROUND_BLUE = 0x90 # blue.
BACKGROUND_GREEN = 0xa0 # green.
BACKGROUND_SKYBLUE = 0xb0 # skyblue.
BACKGROUND_RED = 0xc0 # red.
BACKGROUND_PINK = 0xd0 # pink.
BACKGROUND_YELLOW = 0xe0 # yellow.
BACKGROUND_WHITE = 0xf0 # white.

std_out_handle = ctypes.windll.kernel32.GetStdHandle(STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE)

def set_cmd_text_color(color, handle=std_out_handle):
    Bool = ctypes.windll.kernel32.SetConsoleTextAttribute(handle, color)
    return Bool

#重置色彩
def resetColor():
    set_cmd_text_color(FOREGROUND_RED | FOREGROUND_GREEN | FOREGROUND_BLUE)

#暗蓝色
#dark blue
def printDarkBlue(mess):
    set_cmd_text_color(FOREGROUND_DARKBLUE)
    sys.stdout.write(mess)
    resetColor()

#暗绿色
#dark green
def printDarkGreen(mess):
    set_cmd_text_color(FOREGROUND_DARKGREEN)
    sys.stdout.write(mess)
    resetColor()

#暗天蓝色
#dark sky blue
def printDarkSkyBlue(mess):
    set_cmd_text_color(FOREGROUND_DARKSKYBLUE)
    sys.stdout.write(mess)
    resetColor()

#暗红色
#dark red
def printDarkRed(mess):
    set_cmd_text_color(FOREGROUND_DARKRED)
    sys.stdout.write(mess)
    resetColor()

#暗粉红色
#dark pink
def printDarkPink(mess):
    set_cmd_text_color(FOREGROUND_DARKPINK)
    sys.stdout.write(mess)
    resetColor()

#暗黄色
#dark yellow
def printDarkYellow(mess):
    set_cmd_text_color(FOREGROUND_DARKYELLOW)
    sys.stdout.write(mess)
    resetColor()

#暗白色
#dark white
def printDarkWhite(mess):
    set_cmd_text_color(FOREGROUND_DARKWHITE)
    sys.stdout.write(mess)
    resetColor()

#暗灰色
#dark gray
def printDarkGray(mess):
    set_cmd_text_color(FOREGROUND_DARKGRAY)
    sys.stdout.write(mess)
    resetColor()

#蓝色
#blue
def printBlue(mess):
    set_cmd_text_color(FOREGROUND_BLUE)
    sys.stdout.write(mess)
    resetColor()

#绿色
#green
def printGreen(mess):
    set_cmd_text_color(FOREGROUND_GREEN)
    sys.stdout.write(mess)
    resetColor()

#天蓝色
#sky blue
def printSkyBlue(mess):
    set_cmd_text_color(FOREGROUND_SKYBLUE)
    sys.stdout.write(mess)
    resetColor()

#红色
#red
def printRed(mess):
    set_cmd_text_color(FOREGROUND_RED)
    sys.stdout.write(mess)
    resetColor()

#粉红色
#pink
def printPink(mess):
    set_cmd_text_color(FOREGROUND_PINK)
    sys.stdout.write(mess)
    resetColor()

#黄色
#yellow
def printYellow(mess):
    set_cmd_text_color(FOREGROUND_YELLOW)
    sys.stdout.write(mess)
    resetColor()

#白色
#white
def printWhite(mess):
    set_cmd_text_color(FOREGROUND_WHITE)
    sys.stdout.write(mess)
    resetColor()

#白底黑字
#white bkground and black text
def printWhiteBlack(mess):
    set_cmd_text_color(FOREGROUND_BLACK | BACKGROUND_WHITE)
    sys.stdout.write(mess)
    resetColor()

#白底黑字
#white bkground and black text
def printWhiteBlack_2(mess):
    set_cmd_text_color(0xf0)
    sys.stdout.write(mess)
    resetColor()

#黄底蓝字
#white bkground and black text
def printYellowRed(mess):
    set_cmd_text_color(BACKGROUND_YELLOW | FOREGROUND_RED)
    sys.stdout.write(mess)
    resetColor()

if __name__ == '__main__':
    printDarkBlue('暗蓝色文字')

# Python2.x下使用记得encode('gb2312')
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